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REFERENCES

Ainley, David G., Robert E. LeResche, and William J. L. Sladen. Breeding Biology of the Ad�lie Penguin. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

   

Ancel, A., et al. "Foraging Behavior of Emperor Penguins as a Resource Detector in Winter and Summer." Nature 360(26) 1992, pp. 336-338.

   

Araya, Braulio and Frank Todd. "Status of the Humboldt Penguin in Chile following the 1982-83 El Niño." Spheniscid Penguin Newsletter 1(1), 1988, pp. 8-10.

   

Associated Press. "Thousands of Oil-Coated Penguins are Fed, Bathed." San Diego Union-Tribune, 29 June 1994.

   

Brooke, Michael and Tim Birkhead, eds. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Ornithology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

   
Campbell, B. and E. Lack, eds. Dictionary of Birds. Vermilion, South Dakota: Buteo Books, 1985.
   
Carroll, Robert L. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1988.
   
Cherel, Y., J.C. Stahl, and Y. Le Maho. "Ecology and Physiology of Fasting in King Penguin Chicks." Auk 104, 1987, pp. 254-262.
   
Cherel, Y, J.R Robin, O. Walch, H. Karmann, R. Netchitailo, and Y. Le Maho. "Fasting in King Penguin. 1. Hormonal and Metabolic Changes During Breeding." American Journal of Physiology 254, 1988, pp. R170-R177.
   
Collar, N.J. and R Andrew. Birds to Watch, ICBP Technical Publication No. 8, Smithsonian Press, 1988.
   
Croxall, J.P. and Randall William Davis. "Metabolic Rate and Foraging Behavior of Pygoscelis and Eudyptes Penguins at Sea." Penguin Biology, edited by Lloyd S. Davis and John T Darby, pp. 207-228. San Diego: Academic Press, 1990.
   
Davis, Lloyd S. "Timing of Nest Relief and its Effect on Breeding Success in Adélie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae)." Condor 84, 1982, pp. 178-183.
   
Davis, Lloyd S. and John T. Darby, eds. Penguin Biology. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc., 1990.
   
Davis, Lloyd S. and Elizabeth A. H. Speirs. "Mate Choice in Penguins." Penguin Biology, edited by Lloyd S. Davis and John T Darby, pp. 337-397. San Diego: Academic Press, 1990.
   
del Hoyo, Josep, Andrew Elliott and Jordi Sargatal, eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World: Ostrich to Ducks, Vol 1. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 1992.
   
Despin, B. Oiseau Revue fr. Om. 42: 69-83, 1972. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and R.J. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Ellis, Susie. "The Penguin Conservation and Management Plan (CAMP): Introduction and Overview." Penguin Conservation. June 1993, pp. 13-17.
   
Falla, R.A. Rep. B.A.N.Z Antarc. Res. Exped. Ser B. 11, 1937. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and RJ. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Groscolas, Rene. "Metabolic Adaptations to Fasting in Emperor and King Penguins." Penguin Biology, edited by Lloyd S. Davis and John T. Darby, pp. 269-296. San Diego: Academic Press, 1990.
   
Harrington, H.J. Nortomis 9: 33-9, 1960. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and RJ. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Johnstone, G.W., et al. ANARE Scient. Rep. Ser B, 1. 123: 1-62, 1973. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and P.J. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Kooyman, Gerald L., et al. "Heart Rates and Swim Speeds of Emperor Penguins Diving Under Sea Ice." Journal of Experimental Biology 165. Great Britain: The Company of Biologists Ltd., 1992, pp. 161-180.
   
Kooyman, G.L., et al. Auk 88: 775-95, 1971. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and R.J. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Kooyman, G. L., et al., 1975. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and R.J. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Lamey, Timothy C. "Hatch Asynchrony and Brood Reduction in Penguins." Penguin Biology, edited by Lloyd S. Davis and John T. Darby. San Diego: Academic Press, 1990, pp. 399-416.
   
Marchant, S. and P.J. Higgins, coordinators. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Miller, Kenneth R. and Joseph Levine. Annotated Teacher's Edition: Biology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1993.
   
Muller-Schwarze, Dietland. The Behavior of Penguins: Adapted to Ice and Tropics. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1984.
   
Murphy, R.C. Auk 64:454-5, 1947. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and P.J. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Peterson, Roger Tory. Penguins. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1979.
   
Ponganis, Paul J. and Gerald L. Kooyman. "Diving Physiology of Penguins." Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Omithologicl. Wellington: New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board, 1990, pp.1887-1891.
   
Prevost, J. and V. Vilter. "Histologie de la secretion oesophagienne du Manchot empereur." Proceedings of the 13th International Ornithological Congress, 1963, pp. 1085-1094.
   
Rand, R.W. lbis 96: 171-206, 1954. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and RJ. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Robertson, G. Aust. Wildl. Res. 13: 583-7, 1986. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and RJ. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Scholander, RF. Hvalradets Skrifter, 1940. In Kooyman, Gerald L., et al. "Heart Rates and Swim Speeds of Emperor Penguins Diving Under Sea Ice." Journal of Experimental Biology 165. Great Britain: The Company of Biologists Ltd., 1992, pp. 161-180.
   
Scolaro, J.A., M. Hall, 1. Ximinez, and 0. Kovacs. "El Pinguino de Magellanes (Spheniscus magellanictis). 11. Biologia y desarrollo de la incubacion en la colonia de Punto Tombo, Chubut, Argentina." Ecologia (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires) 11(5), pp. 103-110.
   
Simpson, George Gaylord. Penguins: Past and Present, Here and There. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1976.
   
Sparks, John and Tony Soper. Penguins. New York: Facts On File Publications, 1987.
   
Stahl, J.C., et al. 4th Symp. Antarctic Biol. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and P.J. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Stonehouse, Bernard, ed. The Biology of Penguins. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1975.
   
Trivelpiece, Wayne and Susan Trivelpiece. "Courtship Period of Adélie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap Penguins." Penguin Biology, edited by Lloyd S. Davis and John T Darby. San Diego: Academic Press, 1990, pp.113-127.
   
White, M.G. and J.W.H. Conroy. Ibis 118: 371-3,1975. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand, and Antarctic Birds, edited by S. Marchant and P.J. Higgins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1990.
   
Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
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