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Appendix: Penguin Species Overviews

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EMPEROR PENGUIN

EMPEROR PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Aptenodytes forsteri

SIZE 112 cm (44 in.), 27-41 kg (60-90 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

circumpolar on Antarctic continent within limits of pack ice

PREY fishes, squids
PREDATORS leopard seals, killer whales, skuas
POPULATION about 270,000-350,000 individuals
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "least concern"; population stable

 

The distribution of emperor penguins is circumpolar on the Antarctic continent within limits of the pack ice.
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KING PENGUIN

KING PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Aptenodytes patagonicus

SIZE 94 cm (37 in.), 13.5-16 kg (30-35 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

subantarctic islands and peninsulas, usually forage in ice-free waters

PREY squids, fishes
PREDATORS leopard seals, skuas, giant petrels, gulls, sheathbills
POPULATION about 2,000,000 adults
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "least concern"; population stable or increasing

 

King penguins are found on subantarctic islands and peninsulas. They usually forage for food in ice-free waters.
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ADÉLIE PENGUIN

ADÉLIE PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Pygoscelis adeliae

SIZE 46-61 cm (18-24 in.), 3.5-4.5 kg (8-10 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

circumpolar on Antarctic continent within limits of pack ice

PREY primarily krill, also squids and fishes
PREDATORS leopard seals, skuas, sheathbills
POPULATION about 4,000,000 to 5,200,000 individuals
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "least concern"; population increasing in East Antarctica and Ross Sea, decreasing on the Antarctic Peninsula

 

Adélie penguin distribution is circumpolar on the Antarctic continent within the limits of the pack ice.

Adélie penguin distribution is circumpolar on the Antarctic continent within the limits of the pack ice.
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GENTOO PENGUIN

GENTOO PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Pygoscelis papua

SIZE 61-76 cm (24-30 in.), 5.5-6.5 kg (12-14 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

circumpolar in subantarctic and antarctic waters; avoids pack ice and continental coasts (except near the Antarctic Peninsula)

PREY krill, squid
PREDATORS skuas, leopard seals, antarctic fur seals, New Zealand sea lions, Southern sea lions
POPULATION estimated 314,000 breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "near threatened"; increasing on Antarctic Peninsula and South Sandwich Island, decreasing on some islands

 

Gentoo penguin distribution is circumpolar in subantarctic and Antarctic waters. They avoid pack ice and most continental coasts with the exception of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Gentoo penguin distribution is circumpolar in subantarctic and Antarctic waters. They avoid pack ice and most continental coasts with the exception of the Antarctic Peninsula.
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CHINSTRAP PENGUIN

CHINSTRAP PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Pygoscelis antarcticus

SIZE 46-61 cm (18-24 in.), 4 kg (9 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

antarctic and South American islands

PREY krill, small fishes
PREDATORS leopard seals, skuas, sheathbills
POPULATION about 8,000,000 individuals
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "least concern"

 

Chinstrap penguins are found on Antarctic and South American islands.

Chinstrap penguins are found on Antarctic and South American islands.
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ROCKHOPPER PENGUIN

ROCKHOPPER PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Eudyptes chrysocome

SIZE 41-46 cm (16-18 in.), 2.5 kg (5-6 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

subantarctic islands

PREY fishes, squids, krill
PREDATORS New Zealand fur seals, New Zealand sea lions, Southern sea lions, skuas, gulls
POPULATION about 7,340,000 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; populations are declining

 

Rockhopper penguins are found on subantarctic islands.

Rockhopper penguins are found on subantarctic islands.
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ROYAL PENGUIN

ROYAL PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Eudyptes schlegeli

SIZE 66-76 cm (26-30 in.), 5.5 kg (12 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

Macquarie, Bishop, and Clerk Islands in the Southern Ocean

PREY krill, squids
PREDATORS New Zealand fur seals, skuas, giant petrels
POPULATION about 1,702,000 adults; most of population on Macquarie Island
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; populations recovering from earlier exploitation

 

Royal penguins are found on the Macquarie, Bishop and Clerk Islands in the Southern Ocean as well as around the New Zealand coast.

Royal penguins are found on the Macquarie, Bishop and Clerk Islands in the Southern Ocean as well as around the New Zealand coast.
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ERECT-CRESTED PENGUIN

ERECT-CRESTED PENGUIN
GENUS SPECIES

Eudyptes sclateri

SIZE 64 cm (25 in.), 2.5-3.5 kg (6-8 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

breed only on the Antipodes and Bounty Islands of New Zealand

PREY probably squids, fishes
PREDATORS possibly New Zealand sea lions, New Zealand fur seals, Australian sea lions
POPULATION estimated 154,000 to 170,000 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "endangered"; populations in decline

 

Erect-Crested penguins are found along the coasts of Australia, New Zealand and on the Antipodes and Bounty Islands.

Erect-crested penguins are found along the coasts of Australia, New Zealand and on the Antipodes and Bounty Islands.
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MACARONI PENGUIN

MACARONI PENGUIN
GENUS SPECIES

Eudyptes chrysolophus

SIZE 51-61 cm (20-24 in.), 4.5 kg (10 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

subantarctic islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans

IDENTIFICATION A crest of orange plumes extends backwards
PREY squids and krill
PREDATORS leopard seals, antarctic fur seals, skuas, sheathbills
POPULATION about 18,000,000 mature individuals current
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; populations in decline

 

Macaroni penguins are found on subantarctic islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans.

Macaroni penguins are found on subantarctic islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans.
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FIORDLAND CRESTED PENGUIN

FIORDLAND CRESTED PENGUIN
GENUS SPECIES

Eudyptes pachyrhynchus

SIZE 61 cm (24 in.), 2.5-3 kg (6-7 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

subantarctic islands and New Zealand

PREY small fishes, crustaceans, cuttlefish
PREDATORS New Zealand fur seals, stoats (weasel relatives), weka (rail bird)
POPULATION estimated 5,000 to 6,000 adults
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; declining; nesting sites small, widespread and vulnerable to predation and human interference

 

Fiordland crested penguins are found on subantarctic islands and New Zealand.

Fiordland crested penguins are found on subantarctic islands and New Zealand.
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SNARES ISLAND PENGUIN

SNARES ISLAND PENGUIN
GENUS SPECIES

Eudyptes robustus

SIZE 64 cm (25 in.), 2.5-3 kg (6-7 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

south of New Zealand in the Snares Islands (all within 3 sq. km)

PREY euphausiid "shrimp", squids, fishes
PREDATORS New Zealand sea lions
POPULATION about 46,500 mature penguins
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; all individuals are in less than five locations, but current population numbers are probably stable

 

Snares Island penguins are found south of New Zealand in the Snares Islands which encompasses just 3 square kilometers.

Snares Island penguins are found south of New Zealand in the Snares Islands which encompasses just 3 square kilometers.
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YELLOW-EYED PENGUIN

YELLOW-EYED PENGUIN
GENUS SPECIES

Megadyptes antipodes

SIZE 76 cm (30 in.), 6 kg (3 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

southeast New Zealand

PREY fishes and squids
PREDATORS New Zealand sea lions, domestic predators (prey on chicks)
POPULATION estimated 4,840 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "endangered"; population numbers fluctuating

 

Yellow-eyed penguins are found in southeast New Zealand.

Yellow-eyed penguins are found in southeast New Zealand.
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MAGELLANIC PENGUIN

MAGELLANIC PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Spheniscus magellanicus

SIZE 61-71 cm (24-28 in.), 5 kg (11 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

Falkland Islands and along the coasts of Chile and Argentina

PREY small fishes, cuttlefish
PREDATORS Southern sea lions, leopard seals, Patagonian foxes
POPULATION about 1,300,000 breeding pairs
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "near threatened"; population has declined at Punta Tombo and in the Falklands

 

Magellanic penguins are found on the Falkland Islands and along the coasts of Chile and Argentina.

Magellanic penguins are found on the Falkland Islands and along the coasts of Chile and Argentina.
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AFRICAN PENGUIN (FORMERLY BLACK-FOOTED PENGUIN)

AFRICAN PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Spheniscus demersus

SIZE 61-71 cm (24-28 in.), 3 kg (7 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

South African waters

PREY mostly anchovies, sardines but also squids, crustaceans, and other fishes
PREDATORS South African fur seals, Southern sea lions, octopus, sharks, sacred ibis, gulls
POPULATION about 180,000 adults
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; CITES lists in Appendix II (threatened); population decreasing; threatened by egg and guano collecting, predation on land, oil pollution, and overfishing of anchovies and sardines

 

African penguins are found in South African waters.

African penguins are found in South African waters.
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FAIRY PENGUIN

FAIRY PENGUIN
GENUS SPECIES

Eudyptula minor

SIZE 41 cm (16 in.), about 1 kg (2 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

southern Australia and New Zealand

PREY small fishes
PREDATORS Australian sea lions, fur seals, dogs, cats, stoats, ferrets
POPULATION about 350,000 to 600,000 adult penguins
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "least concern"

 

Fairy penguins are found along the coasts of southern Australia and New Zealand.

Fairy penguins are found along the coasts of southern Australia and New Zealand.
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HUMBOLDT PENGUIN

HUMBOLDT PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Spheniscus humboldti

SIZE 56-66 cm (22-26 in.), 4 kg (9 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

islands off western South America, and along the coasts of Peru and Chile

PREY anchovetta (small fish)
PREDATORS possibly sharks and Southern sea lions
POPULATION approximately 3,300 to 12,000 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "vulnerable"; CITES lists in Appendix I (endangered); significant threats include overfishing of prey species, drowning in gill nets, guano harvesting, human interference, and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events

 

Humboldt penguins are found on islands off of western South America and along the coasts of Peru and Chile.

Humboldt penguins are found on islands off of western South America and along the coasts of Peru and Chile.
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GALÁPAGOS PENGUIN

GALÁPAGOS PENGUIN

GENUS SPECIES

Spheniscus mendiculus

SIZE 53 cm (21 in.), about 2.5 kg (5-6 lb.)
DISTRIBUTION

Galápagos Islands

PREY small fishes
PREDATORS sharks, eared barn owls, Galápagos hawk, feral cats, dogs
POPULATION about 1,200 mature individuals
CURRENT STATUS

IUCN classifies this species as "endangered "; listed as endangered on the US Endangered Species List; increased human exploitation of the island contributes to habitat degradation and disturbances. This species has also suffered population declines as a result of ENSO events.

 

Galápagos penguins are found on the Galápagos Islands and off the coast of Ecuador on the equator.

Galápagos penguins are found on the Galápagos Islands and off the coast of Ecuador on the equator.
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